Justice and History features two draped female figures reclining against a globe.
Justice holds a book inscribed "Justice / Law / Order" in her left hand; her right hand rests on a pair of scales. History holds a scroll inscribed "History / July / 1776." Overall length of the sculpture is 11 feet 2 inches.
Placed above the Senate doors in 1863, the sculpture deteriorated over the following century. In 1974 the original was removed, restored with plaster to its appearance as documented in early photographs and then used as a model for the carving of a new marble replica, which was installed at the U.S. Capitol later that year. The restored original figures may be seen in the Capitol terminal of the Senate subway.
Thomas Crawford (1814-1857), also created the Statue of Freedom atop the dome, the designs of the House and Senate bronze doors, and the Progress of Civilization pediment sculpture over the east entrance to the Senate wing.