American sculptor Thomas Crawford, working in his studio in Rome, created Justice and History for the extension of the U.S. Capitol. The sculpture arrived at the Capitol in early 1860 and was kept in the former Hall of the House of Representatives until the exterior of the Senate extension was ready to receive it.
Placed above the Senate doors in 1863, the sculpture deteriorated over the following century. In 1974 the original was removed, restored with plaster to its appearance as documented in early photographs, and then used as a model for the carving of a new marble replica, which was installed at the U.S. Capitol later that year. The restored original figures may be seen in the Capitol terminal of the Senate subway.
Sculptor Thomas Crawford (1814-1857) also created the Statue of Freedom atop the dome, the designs of bronze Senate and House doors, and the pediment sculpture Progress of Civilization over the east entrance to the Senate wing.