It is one of the few federal buildings completed during the presidency of John F. Kennedy and the cornerstone bears his name as a result.
Designed by Naramore, Bain, Brady & Johanson, the building's façade was mostly limestone until it was vacated in 2008 to undergo major renovation. Construction for a redesign by Boggs & Partners Architects commenced in 2010, and it reopened for occupancy in 2014. The modernized facility now includes an open-plan office space and a green roof. Natural light is provided by two six-story atriums and a central atrium skylight, plus glass curtain walls on the east and west façades. These changes helped the building earn a Leadership in Engineering and Environmental Design (LEED) Platinum certification.
Originally called "Federal Office Building No. 8," the U.S. House of Representatives voted to name the facility after the late Massachusetts Democrat and former Speaker of the House Thomas P. "Tip" O'Neill in 2012.
Legislation transferred ownership of the facility from the General Services Administration to the U.S. House of Representatives in June 2017. The newly public building is occupied by staff of various committees of the U.S. House of Representatives, the Clerk of the House, legislative support organizations and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.